The Tuskesgee Study was a large, long-running study on the effects of amphetamine use on the brain and brain chemistry.
Its name came from the study’s name, which means “tusk” in Alabama.
Its first cohort, which was recruited in the late 1950s and early 1960s, was composed of people who took amphetamines at doses up to 50 micrograms per day.
Those who took the highest dose, the 10 microgram mark, were considered the “tusk” subjects.
The study lasted until the 1970s.
But its findings were never widely reported in the media.
The Tusks were among the first to report the effects, and the study was the subject of several books, movies, and TV shows.
But they didn’t go nearly far enough.
They never gave enough detail to help people understand the underlying science, and they failed to take into account the complexity of the brain, the effects that could be had from amphetamine use, and how these effects were different for males and females.
They also didn’t consider the possible influence of genetic predisposition.
They were simply too focused on the drug.
In fact, they didn.
“In the 1930s, we didn’t even consider the fact that the brain could have different effects depending on which side of the male or female brain you were on,” says Mark A. Schmitt, a professor of neurobiology and psychiatry at the University of California, San Francisco.
“I think it was a mistake, because amphetamamines were already very effective for treating depression, and amphetaminons weren’t.
We were looking at male versus female brains, and that’s where the difference between amphetalone and amphetamine comes in.”
As the Tuskes were studying, other research showed that there were differences in the brains of men and women.
This study found differences in how the brains were wired.
The male brain was wired more like that of a male child, with a more relaxed prefrontal cortex, a more flexible limbic system, and an extra limbic nucleus.
The female brain was similarly wired, with more rigid structures like the amygdala and hippocampus, which are part of the “fight-or-flight” system.
But it didn’t take long for the Tuskeges to realize that the results were wrong.
The brain wiring in males and women, which were almost identical, didn’t fit together.
The findings were shocking, and it took until the 1980s for researchers to understand exactly how the brain works.
“The idea that there’s some brain wiring that is different in males versus females, that’s the biggest mistake,” says Schmitt.
“It was not clear that the brains could be different.”
They were wrong in their conclusions.
The truth was, the brain was not wired differently in males or females.
The brains of both sexes are different, and there’s no way to measure that.
In their experiments, the Tusks had a group of males and a group, mostly females, and had the subjects take a test that measured their attention and memory.
The males scored higher than the females on the tests.
In some cases, the males scored lower.
In others, the female scores were very different.
When the Tuskees took the male subjects, they found that the male brains did differ from the females.
But this wasn’t enough to convince the Tuskee Study’s leaders that the differences were real.
In a famous study, a group from the Tusketes asked their male subjects to perform a series of simple tasks that involved reading out a series, from left to right, of words.
One task involved reading aloud letters that were written on paper.
The next was to write out an image of a letter in a computer program.
After the second task, the subject sat quietly for an hour, and then they had to write the word “loud.”
When the subjects were given a computer to do the same task, they scored lower than when the Tuskies took the males.
The difference wasn’t as pronounced as the males’ scores.
But there were still differences in their results.
When they were asked to write a series from left-to-right, males scored more accurately than females, but there was no difference in the scores between the groups.
It was only when the task was repeated with letters from the right-to–left that the men outperformed the females, at least in the test of word recognition.
“That was the only difference that we could find between the two groups of subjects,” says Dr. William W. Rucker, the senior author of the study.
“We thought it was very strange.”
When Rucker and his colleagues were able to replicate the findings with the same subjects and with the opposite genders, they were surprised by what they found.
The results were similar, but the men did not outperform the women in the first task, and in the second they did not.
They simply didn’t